MS RFC 135: MapServer 8.0 Config file


Steve Lime



Jeff McKenna




Last update:



MapServer 8.0


This document is outdated, please follow the official document: CONFIG


Securing the MapServer CGI application requires setting environment variables at the web server level. While not particularly difficult it does require access to web server configuration files and the approach can vary greatly from platform to platform. FastCGI implementations have uneven support for environment variables and this approach would standardize things. In addition, there are opportunities to improve overall MapServer security at the mapfile level by allowing a site administrator to set restrictions at a site level. For example:

  • a registry of plugins can be defined centrally to limit what can be specified within a mapfile

  • all mapfiles could be defined as immutable, so no runtime changes would be allowed site-wide

  • validation patterns for common attributes, for consistency

While much of this could be done via environment variables it becomes cumbersome and error prone. This approach largely abandons environment variables with one notable exception described below.

Proposed Approach

We propose introducing a MapServer config file (basically an ini file) that is loaded by the MapServer CGI at runtime and provides site-level configuration apart from what is done with a mapfile.

Identifying the Config File

At present, a single environment variable (MAPSERVER_CONFIG_FILE) is referenced to determine what config file to load. While it’s somewhat ironic to propose using an environment variable to specify a configuration file that avoids setting environment variables, in this instance the approach allows different deployments (vhosts) on the same server to operate under different configs.

In addition, a default location/filename (e.g. ${install dir}/etc/mapserver.conf) is supported and set at compile time. This can be overridden by the user at compile time using the -DMAPSERVER_CONFIG_FILE flag. Precedence is the environment variable then the default. If neither are available (and valid, see below) then MapServer will refuse to run.

Processing the Config File

The config file would look similar to a mapfile with familiar SECTION … END constructs. In fact, we can use the existing lexer to process the file without incurring the overhead of adding another parser or dependencies on other libraries. The configObj structure is basically just a series of hashes (hashObj) used to group similar configuration elements. Currently it consists of:

  • ENV:

    references to the various environment variables currently supports (e.g. MS_MAP_NO_PATH)

  • MAPS:

    a curated list of mapfiles available identified by a key. If MS_MAP_NO_PATH is set then only those keys can be used with the CGI map parameter. This is currently supported via environment variables.


    a curated list of plugins list of plugins identified by a key. This is new functionality.

Other sections could include METADATA and VALIDATION, which are places general purpose configuration information is held.

Relationship to the Mapfile

The current proof of concept implementation requires the config file. Upon successful loading of both the config and the map files the configObj is added to the mapObj as a read-only member so that it can be referenced as necessary. Destroying the mapObj does not destroy the configObj, that is done separately.

One challenge is that not all bits of MapServer code that reference environment variables (e.g. msFontCacheSetup() in fontcache.c) have access to the mapObj. Using CPLSetConfigOption()/CPLGetConfigOption() might be one solution (thanks Even!).

File Definition

# Example Config File
    # Available variables (
    #   MS_MAP_PATTERN - regex used to validate map variable values
    #   MS_MAPFILE - default mapfile if no value is passed in the map variable
    #   MS_MAP_NO_PATH - limits access to a curated set of maps (by key)
    MS_MAP_NO_PATH "true"
    MAP1 "/opt/mapserver/myapp/"
    MAP2 "/opt/mapserver/myapp/"

MapScript Support

This is primarily a resource to support the configuration of the MapServer CGI application. However, there may be circumstances where it makes sense for MapScript to leverage the configuration. For example, if we require plugins to be registered in the configuration file then an application using plugins would have to reference the resource. The configuration file can carry arbitrary name:value pairs and could be useful for sharing information across scripts. As a result we propose providing a simple MapScript wrapper class that can be instantiated as necessary. Initially config file members are just hashes so MapScript hashObj methods apply. So for example:

# Perl Syntax
$config = new mapscript::configObj('path to config file'); # could also read from the environment
$mapfile = $config->{map}->get('mymapfile'); # grab value from configuration
$map = new mapscript::mapObj($mapfile, $config); # $config is optional

New Source Files

  • mapserv-config.cpp/mapserv-config.h:

    core implementation, defines loading function and helper functions (e.g. msConfigGetEnv()).

Source Files Changed

  • mapserv.c:

    load config file, abort if not found.

  • mapserver.h:

    add config member to mapObj struct.

  • mapfile.c:

    initialize config member of mapObj struct to NULL.

  • mapservutil.c:

    msCGILoadMap() uses msConfigGetEnv() instead of getenv(); adds configObj reference to mapObj.

  • mapscript/swiginc/config.i:

    basic Swig wrapper for a configObj.

  • mapscript/swiginc/map.i:

    extend mapObj constructors to take optional configObj.

Build Files Changed

  • CMakeLists.txt:

    typical integration of new source files.


  • TBD

Backwards Compatibility Issues

This proposal requires the use of a config file for all CGI/FastCGI execution. This will change the installation and setup process a bit. However, functional changes should be relatively limited.

The regression test suite msautotest now also includes a config file:


Security Considerations

The intention is to improve overall security and ease of configuration. Config files would need to stored in trusted locations with access limited to appropriate individuals.

Performance Implications

The config file will have to be read and processed incurring a bit of overhead. Although given the I/O associated with a typical MapServer request we would expect the impact to be relatively small.

Ticket ID and References

Voting history

+1 from SteveL, JukkaR, MikeS, JeromeB, SethG, TomK, JeffM, DanielM, ThomasB, EvenR